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Название: An Elementary Proof of Lyapunov Exponent Pairing for Hard-Sphere Systems at Constant Kinetic Energy
Автор: Panja D.
Journal of Statistical Physics, Vol. 109, Nos. 3/4, November 2002. p. 705-727.
The conjugate pairing of Lyapunov exponents for a field-driven system with smooth inter-particle interaction at constant total kinetic energy was first proved by Dettmann and Morriss [Phys. Rev. E 53:R5545 (1996)] using simple methods of geometry. Their proof was extended to systems interacting via hardcore inter-particle potentials by Wojtkowski and Liverani [ Comm. Math. Phys. 194:47 (1998)], using more sophisticated methods. Another, and somewhat more direct version of the proof for hard-sphere systems has been provided by Ruelle [/. Stat. Phys. 95:393 (1999)]. However, these approaches for hard-sphere systems are somewhat difficult to follow. In this paper, a proof of the pairing of Lyapunov exponents for hard-sphere systems at constant kinetic energy is presented, based on a very simple explicit geometric construction, similar to that of Ruelle. Generalizations of this construction to higher dimensions and arbitrary shapes of scatterers or particles are trivial. This construction also works for hard-sphere systems in an external field with a Nose-Hoover thermostat. However, there are situations of physical interest, where these proofs of conjugate pairing rule for systems interacting via hard-core inter-particle potentials break down.