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Название: Brownian Motion on a Manifold
Автор: van Kampen N.G.
The question of the existence and correct form of equations describing Brow-nian motion on a manifold cannot be answered by mathematics alone, but requires a study of the underlying physics. As in classical mechanics, manifolds enter through the transformation of variables needed to account for the presence of constraints. The constraints are either due to a physical agency that forces the motion to remain on a manifold, or they represent conserved quantities of the equation of motion themselves. Also the Brownian motion is described either by a Smoluchowski diffusion equation or by a Kramers equation. The four cases lead to the following conclusions. (i) Smoluchowski diffusion with a conserved quantity reduces to a diffusion equation on the manifold; (ii) The same is true for diffusion with a physical constraint in three dimensions, but in more dimensions it may happen that no autonomous equation on the manifold results; (iii) A Kramers equation with a conserved quantity reduces to an equation on the manifold, but in general not of the form of a Kramers equation; (iv) The Kramers equation with a physical constraint reduces to an autonomous Kramers equation on the manifold only for a special shape of that constraint. Throughout, only a certain type of physical constraints has been envisaged, and global questions are ignored. Finally, the customary heuristic construction of a Fokker-Planck equation for a mechanical system on a manifold is demonstrated for the case of Brownian rotation of a rigid body, and its shortcomings are emphasized.