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Название: Fractals in Physics: Squig Clusters, Diffusions, Fractal Measures, and the Unicity of Fractal Dimensionality
Автор: Mandelbrot B.B.
Journal of Statistical Physics, Vol. 34, Nos. 5/6, 1984. p. 895-930.
The three topics discussed in this paper are largely independent. Part 1: Fractal "squig clusters" are introduced, and it is shown that their properties can match to a remarkable extent those of percolation clusters at criticality. Physics on these new geometric shapes should prove tractable. As background, the author's theories of squig intervals and squig trees are reviewed, and restated in more versatile form. Part 2: The notion of "latent" fractal dimensionality is introduced and motivated by the desire to simplify the algebra of dimensionality. Scaling noises are touched upon. A common formalism is presented for three forms of anomalous diffusion: the ant in the fractal labyrinth, fractional Brownian motion, and Levy stable motion. The fractal dimensionalities common to diverse shapes generated by diffusion are given, in Table I, as functions of the latent dimensionalities of the support of the motion and of the diffusion itself. Part 3: It is argued that every fractal point set has a unique fractal dimensionality, but it is pointed out that many fractals involve diverse combinations of many fractal point sets. Such is, in particular, the case for fractal measures and for fractal graphs, often called hierarchical lattices. The fractal measures that the author had introduced in the early 1970s are described, including new developments.