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Название: Thermostating by Deterministic Scattering: The Periodic Lorentz Gas
Авторы: Rateitschak K., Klages R., Nicolis G.
Journal of Statistical Physics, Vol. 99, Nos. 56, 2000, p. 1339-1364.
We present a novel mechanism for thermalizing a system of particles in equilibrium and nonequilibrium situations, based on specifically modeling energy transfer at the boundaries via a microscopic collision process. We apply our method to the periodic Lorentz gas, where a point particle moves diffusively through an ensemble of hard disks arranged on a triangular lattice. First, collision rules are defined for this system in thermal equilibrium. They determine the velocity of the moving particle such that the system is deterministic, time-reversible, and microcanonical. These collision rules can systematically be adapted to the case where one associates arbitrarily many degrees of freedom to the disk, which here acts as a boundary. Subsequently, the system is investigated in non-equilibrium situations by applying an external field. We show that in the limit where the disk is endowed by infinitely many degrees of freedom it acts as a thermal reservoir yielding a well-defined nonequilibrium steady state. The characteristic properties of this state, as obtained from computer simulations, are finally compared to those of the so-called Gaussian thermostated driven Lorentz gas.