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Название: A worldwide geographical distribution of neurotropic fungi, an analysis and discussion
Авторы: Guzman G., Allen J.W., Gartz J.
In this paper, the world distribution of 216 known species of neurotropic fungi is discussed. The neurotropic fungi considered are divided into the following four groups: 1) species with psilocybin and related indoles, or those likely to contain these substances, 2) species with ibotcnic acid, 3) ergot fungi, and 4) species used as sacred fungi for which no reliable chemical studies have been found. In the first group are Psilocybe (116 species), Gymnopilus (14 species), Panaeolus (13 species), Copelandia (12 species), Hypholoma (6 species), Pluteus (6 species), Inocyhe (6 species), Conocybe (4 species), Panaeolina (4 species), Gerronema (2 species) and Agrocybe, Galerina and Mycena (each with one species), although in several species of this group, mainly in the Panaeoloideous fungi, there are no known chemical studies. In the second group are Amanita muscaria, A. pantherina and A. regalis; in the third group are Claviceps purpurea and allies: 5 species of Claviceps and 2 of Cordyceps; in the fourth group are bolets (two genera with 8 species), Russula (6 species), and 6 species of gasteromycetes (Lycoperdales у Phallales) in 3 genera. Concerning the distribution of Psilocybe, the majority of the species are found in or near the Austral hemisphere, mainly in the subtropical humid forests. Within these forests reside the most most well documented ethnic groups that use neurotropic fungi, such as the native peoples of Mexico and New Guinea. Mexico has the highest number of neurotropic species of fungi, with 76 species, of which 44 belong to Psilocybe (39 % of the world). More than 450 bibliographic references were considered.