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Wurfel P. — Physics of Solar Cells: From Principles to New Concepts
Wurfel P. — Physics of Solar Cells: From Principles to New Concepts



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Название: Physics of Solar Cells: From Principles to New Concepts

Автор: Wurfel P.

Аннотация:

Würfel's book describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency.
Based on the highly successful German version, but thoroughly revised and updated, this edition contains the latest knowledge on the mechanisms of solar energy conversion. Requiring no more than standard physics knowledge, it enables readers to understand the factors driving conversion efficiency and to apply this knowledge to their own solar cell development.


Язык: en

Рубрика: Физика/

Статус предметного указателя: Готов указатель с номерами страниц

ed2k: ed2k stats

Год издания: 2005

Количество страниц: 186

Добавлена в каталог: 24.03.2006

Операции: Положить на полку | Скопировать ссылку для форума | Скопировать ID
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Предметный указатель
$f$-number      27 28
Abb$\acute{e}$ sine condition      26 28
Absorption coefficient      60 79 80
Absorption coefficient, measurement      83
Absorption coefficient, negative      82
Absorptivity      20 21
Absorptivity of semiconductors      21
Absorptivity, negative      82
Acceptors      48
Air mass      23
AM0 spectrum      23 24 157 170
AM1 spectrum      23
AM1.5 spectrum      23 24 182
Ambipolar diffusion      103
Anti-reflection coating      12 142
battery      55 133 136 166
Black body      9 18
Black body, radiation      9
Boltzmann constant      181
Bose — Einstein distribution      10
Carbon dioxide      3
Carbon dioxide, atmospheric concentration      5
Carnot efficiency      89
Carnot engine      29-31 35 37
Cavity      9 37
Chemical energy      85
Chemical equilibrium      54
Chemical potential, electrons      94
Chemical potential, photons      81
Collision time      94
Concentration of radiation      24 28
Concentrator      29
Concentrator cells      160
Conduction band      40 46
Conduction band, germanium      41
Conductivity      95
Coupled equilibria      55
Current-voltage characteristic for impurity recombination      125
Current-voltage characteristic, pn-junction      120 122 124
Dember effect      104
Density of states for electrons      39 41
Density of states for photons      10 12 80
Density of states, combined      59
Density of states, effective      43
Detailed balance      64 65 71
Dielectric relaxation      102
Diffusion current      95
diffusion length      101 120
Diffusion voltage      116
Direct transitions      59
Distribution function for electrons      38
Distribution function for photons      10
Donors      47
Doping, see semiconductors, doping down-conversion of photons      172
Drift velocity      95
Earth, energy emission      6
Earth, temperature      6 8
effective mass      41 42
Efficiency, as function of energy gap      140
Efficiency, intensity dependence      151
Efficiency, maximum      29 30 88
Efficiency, monochromatic      92
Efficiency, overall      92
Einstein relation      96
Electric field in a solar cell      133
Electrochemical equilibrium in pn-junction      116
Electrochemical potential      53 55
Electrochemical potential of electrons      56
Electrochemical potential of holes      57
Electron affinity      129
Electron capture      70
Electron capture, cross-section      70 71 73 75
Electron emission      71
Electron-hole pairs, average energy      86
Electron-hole pairs, chemical energy      86 87
Electron-hole pairs, equilibrium with photons      89
Electron-hole pairs, generation      58 62-64 81
Electron-hole pairs, interaction with photons      82
Electron-hole pairs, momentum      59
Electron-hole pairs, recombination, see recombination electron-hole pairs, recombinstion      79
Electron-hole pairs, temperature      85
Elementary charge      181
Emission of photons      79
Emission of photons, spontaneous      79
Emission of photons, stimulated      79
Emissivity      20 81
Energy consumption      2 5
Energy current      19
Energy current, per solid angle      15
Energy density      13
Energy dissipation      98
Energy economy      1 177
Energy maximum reserves      3
Energy of radiation      13
Energy reserves      2-4
Energy units      1 181
Energy, current from sun      2
Energy-momentum relation      59 60
entropy      30 34
Entropy of electrons      56
Entropy of holes      56
Entropy of photons      89
Equilibrium      see Thermodynamic equilibrium
Equivalent circuit      149
Fermi distribution      39
Fermi distribution, Boltzmann approximation      67
Fermi energy      56 58
Fick’s law      96
Field current      94
fill factor      138 149 151
Focussing      24
Free energy      55
Gallium arsenide      42 48 128
Generation rate      63
Geometrical optics      26
Global warming      178
Greenhouse effect      5-7 177 178
Hetero-junction      127 131 147
Holes      45
Homo-junction      128
Hot electrons      165
Impact ionization      63 163
Impurity photovoltaic effect      168
Impurity states      70
Index of refraction      25 175
Index of refraction, silicon      143
Indirect transitions      61
Kirchhoff’s law      19
Lambert’s law      18
Landsberg efficiency      33 34
Laser      82
Laser condition      82
Lifetime      74 77
Lifetime for radiative recombination      77
Lifetime, upper limit      79
Light polarization      11
Light trapping      142 146
Light velocity      181
Maximum power point      137
Mean free path      94
Membrane for electrons      113
Membrane for holes      113
Membrane, Semi-permeable      109
Metal contact      129
Metal contact, energy diagram      130
MIS contact      132
Mobility      95
Momentum space      11
Oil consumption      5
Open-circuit voltage      124 139 146 150
Optical transitions      79
Ozone layer      177
Pauli principle      38
Peltier effect      130
Permittivity of free space      181
Phase space      10
Phonon energy      37
photoemission      58
Photomultiplier      37
Photon absorption      59
Photon absorption, probability      59
Photonic crystal structure      145
photons      9
Photosynthesis      3
Planck constant      181
Planck’s radiation law      9 13 20
Planck’s radiation law, generalized      67 79
Pn-junction      115 116 119 120 123 133-135
Pn-junction, current-voltage characteristic      120
Pn-junction, potential distribution      117
Poisson’s equation      117
Quasi — Fermi distribution      51 52
Recombination      65
Recombination centers      51
Recombination rate      71 78
Recombination, efficiency      74
Recombination, non-radiative      67
Recombination, radiative      65 79
Recombination, surface      75
Recombination, uger      67
Recombination, velocity      76
Recombination, via impurities      68
Redox system      114
Reflection      142
Reflection, total internal      12 64 143 144
Resistance, parallel      149
Resistance, reaction      122
Resistance, series      149
Resistance, transport      122
Reverse saturation current      123 124
Schottky contact      131 132
Semiconductors      37
Semiconductors, direct      42
Semiconductors, doping      47
Semiconductors, ideal      89
Semiconductors, III — V      76 128 160
Semiconductors, illuminated      53
Semiconductors, indirect      43 61 62
Semiconductors, intrinsic      44
semiconductors, N-type      49
semiconductors, P-type      50
Short-circuit current      123 124 139 140 146 155
Sine condition, see Abbe sine condition Snell’s law of refraction      12 64
Solar cells, chemical      109 113 122
Solar cells, dye      114
Solar cells, efficiency      140
Solar cells, energy conversion      137
Solar cells, maximum efficiency      137
Solar cells, minimal thickness      147
Solar cells, plastic      148
Solar cells, silicon      141
Solar cells, thin film      147
Solar disc      16
Solar disc, solid angle      15 181
Solar spectrum      21 22
Solid angle      12 15
Space charge density      117
Space charge layer      128
Spectrum      13
Staebler — Wronski effect      147
Stefan — Boltzmann constant      181
Stefan — Boltzmann radiation law      6 17 18
Sun as black body      9 21
Sun radiation spectrum      6
Sun spectrum, see solar spectrum surface charge      130
Surface photo-voltage      106
Surface states      75 76
Surface states, density      75
Tandem cells      155
Tandem cells, series connection      159
Temperature dependence of $V_{\propto}$      149
Temperature of the Earth      6
Thermalization      52 85
Thermo-photonics      162
Thermo-photovoltaic conversion      161
Thermodynamic equilibrium      54 55
Three-level system      168 173
Tunnel junction      159
Two-diode model      125
Two-step excitation      168
Uncertainty principle      10 11 40
Up-conversion of photons      172
Valence band      40 46
Valence band, germanium      41
Venus atmosphere      8
Vibrational quanta      37
Warm-water collectors      178
work function      57
Work function, measurement      58
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