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Название: Quantum theory of nonlinear optics
Автор: Drummond P.D.
Experiments with lasers are now able to examine quantum eﬀects in radically new physical environments. These are strongly driven non-equilibrium systems with large particle numbers and long interaction times. For this reason, they diﬀer greatly from either the traditional domain of scattering theory, or the theory of thermal equilibrium. They can show characteristics of non-equilibrium phase transitions, self-organization, chaos, spatial pattern formation, solitons, limit cycles, and other highly nonlinear phenomena. Relatively simple quantum ﬁeld theories can be used to describe nonlinear dispersive media like optical waveguides or ﬁbers. These can then be employed as fundamental tests of quantum theory, in areas ranging from measurement theory to solitons. An example of a novel quantum state produced in nonlinear media is the quantum soliton of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In agreement with theoretical predictions, recent experiments have provided direct evidence for the propagation and collision of these quantum solitons. This type of quantum ﬁeld theory is relevant to ﬁber-optic communications systems, which operate close to the quantum limits. Recent developments include parametric solitons which exist in higher dimensions, and Bose-Einstein condensates – leading to the atom laser.